Facts About Vietnam (Country)

Vietnam, officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a long, narrow country in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north and Laos and Cambodia to the west. Vietnam is known for its stunning landscapes, rich culture, and vibrant history. The country has a population of over 97 million people and the official language is Vietnamese. The currency used in Vietnam is the Dong. Vietnam covers an area of 127,123 square miles and is home to diverse geographical features, including the Annam Cordillera mountain range and major rivers like the Mekong, Red, Ma, and Perfume.

facts about vietnam (country)

Key Takeaways:

  • Vietnam is a long, narrow country in Southeast Asia with a population of over 97 million people.
  • The official language of Vietnam is Vietnamese, and the currency used is the Dong.
  • Vietnam is known for its stunning landscapes and diverse geographical features, including the Annam Cordillera mountain range and major rivers like the Mekong, Red, Ma, and Perfume.

Geography and Landmarks of Vietnam

Vietnam is a country blessed with diverse geographical features, making it a captivating destination for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers alike. From picturesque coastlines to towering mountain ranges, Vietnam offers a stunning array of landscapes to explore.

Ha Long Bay: A Natural Wonder

One of Vietnam’s most iconic landmarks is Ha Long Bay, a breathtaking UNESCO World Heritage site. Located in the Gulf of Tonkin, Ha Long Bay is renowned for its ethereal beauty, characterized by emerald-green waters and towering limestone islands and inlets that create a mesmerizing seascape. Exploring Ha Long Bay offers a chance to immerse oneself in its tranquility while cruising along the scenic waterways.

Annam Cordillera: Majestic Mountain Range

On the western side of Vietnam lies the Annam Cordillera, a majestic mountain range that stretches across the country. This mountainous region is characterized by its rugged peaks, verdant valleys, and lush forests. For nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers, the Annam Cordillera offers the opportunity to embark on challenging treks, witness breathtaking vistas, and encounter unique flora and fauna.

Mekong Delta: The Rice Bowl of Vietnam

Southern Vietnam is home to the Mekong Delta, a fertile region known as the rice bowl of Vietnam. The Mekong River, one of the world’s great rivers, flows through this region, creating a network of rivers, canals, and lush landscapes. The Mekong Delta is not only an important agricultural region but also a fascinating destination to explore the floating markets, where locals trade goods, and experience the vibrant river life.

With its diverse geography and stunning landmarks, Vietnam offers a dynamic and awe-inspiring experience for travelers. Whether exploring the dramatic islands of Ha Long Bay, trekking through the Annam Cordillera mountains, or immersing in the vibrant culture of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam’s natural wonders will leave a lasting impression.

Culture and Traditions of Vietnam

Vietnamese culture is a unique and vibrant blend of indigenous traditions and external influences. The country’s rich history and diverse population have contributed to the development of a distinct cultural identity. While Vietnam is a communist country with no official religion, many Vietnamese people follow the “Three Teachings” of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

These teachings play a significant role in shaping the moral and ethical values of Vietnamese society, emphasizing the importance of respect for one’s ancestors, harmony within the family, and virtuous behavior. This cultural foundation contributes to the strong sense of community and filial piety that is deeply ingrained in Vietnamese culture.

One of the remarkable aspects of Vietnamese culture is its close connection to nature. Vietnam is known for its rich wildlife and diverse ecosystems. The country is home to numerous mammal, reptile, amphibian, and bird species. Efforts have been made to protect the natural habitats of these animals through the establishment of national parks and reserves. However, deforestation remains a significant threat to the wildlife in Vietnam. Conservation efforts and awareness campaigns are crucial in preserving the unique biodiversity of the country.

“The Three Teachings of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism have shaped the core values and morals of Vietnamese society for centuries. They emphasize harmony, respect, and spiritual enlightenment.”

To gain a deeper understanding of Vietnamese culture, it is essential to explore its traditional arts and customs. Vietnamese art forms, such as traditional music, dance, and theater, reflect the country’s history and religious beliefs. The complex and graceful movements of Vietnamese traditional dance convey storytelling and evoke emotions.

Furthermore, Vietnamese cuisine is an integral part of the country’s culture. Known for its freshness, balance of flavors, and aromatic herbs, Vietnamese food has gained international acclaim. Popular dishes include pho (noodle soup), banh mi (Vietnamese sandwich), and fresh spring rolls. Vietnamese food reflects the resourcefulness and resilience of the Vietnamese people, making use of local ingredients and incorporating a fusion of flavors from different regions.

In summary, Vietnamese culture is a tapestry of indigenous traditions, philosophical teachings, and natural wonders. It is a celebration of diversity, morality, and harmony with nature. Exploring the cultural and traditional aspects of Vietnam provides a deeper appreciation for the country’s rich heritage and its profound impact on Vietnamese society.

Vietnamese Culture: Key Highlights

Aspect Description
Three Teachings A blend of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism influences Vietnamese society’s moral and ethical values.
Wildlife in Vietnam Vietnam is home to diverse animal species, but deforestation poses a significant threat to their habitats.
Traditional Arts and Customs Vietnamese performing arts and customs reflect the country’s history, beliefs, and cultural diversity.
Vietnamese Cuisine Fresh, flavorful, and diverse, Vietnamese cuisine is renowned for its balance of flavors and use of local ingredients.

Government and Economy of Vietnam

Vietnam, officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, has a government structure dominated by the Communist Party of Vietnam. The country is a socialist republic with a president as the head of state and a prime minister who runs the government. These leaders play critical roles in shaping the policies and guiding the nation forward.

One of the key aspects of Vietnam’s economy is its heavy reliance on exports. The country has experienced significant growth in trade with various nations since the 1990s. Vietnam’s major industries include crude oil, seafood, rice, shoes, wooden products, machinery, electronics, coffee, and clothing. These exports contribute to the country’s economic development and provide opportunities for international trade and cooperation.

Vietnam’s decision to embrace free-market policies and open up to global trade has resulted in robust economic growth. The Vietnamese government actively promotes foreign investment and implements policies to attract business investments in various sectors. This approach has contributed to Vietnam’s status as one of the fastest-growing economies in Southeast Asia.

Key Points

  • Vietnam is a socialist republic governed by the Communist Party of Vietnam.
  • The country’s government structure includes a president as the head of state and a prime minister who runs the government.
  • Vietnam’s economy heavily relies on exports, with major industries including crude oil, seafood, rice, shoes, wooden products, machinery, electronics, coffee, and clothing.
  • Since the 1990s, Vietnam has witnessed an expansion in trade with various nations.
  • Vietnam’s government actively promotes foreign investment and implements policies to attract business investments.

Vietnam’s commitment to fostering relationships with other countries and developing its economy has played a crucial role in its emergence as a key player in the global market. By focusing on exports and implementing effective economic policies, Vietnam has made significant strides in improving the living standards of its citizens and positioning itself as a valuable partner in the international community.

Historical Background of Vietnam

Vietnam’s history is deeply intertwined with the influence of China, which has left a lasting impact on its culture and development. For centuries, Vietnam was ruled by the Chinese, until a rebellion led by Vietnamese commanders in 939 CE resulted in the establishment of an independent nation.

During its long history, Vietnam also experienced periods of colonization, particularly under French rule in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The country was occupied by Japan during World War II, further shaping its path to independence.

One of the most significant chapters in Vietnam’s history is the Vietnam War, which took place from 1954 to 1975. The country was divided into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam, leading to a protracted conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Chinese Rule and Cultural Influence

Chinese rule played a crucial role in shaping Vietnam’s culture, language, and political structure. With China’s influence, Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were introduced to Vietnam, which became the country’s dominant philosophies collectively known as the “Three Teachings.”

Chinese administrative systems were also adopted, including the civil service examination system and the hierarchical social structure. Although Vietnam achieved independence in 939 CE, Chinese influence continued to shape its culture and society.

“Vietnam’s history is a testament to the enduring influence of Chinese rule, as seen in its cultural traditions and societal systems.”

The Vietnam War and its Aftermath

The Vietnam War, a protracted conflict between North Vietnam and South Vietnam, had a profound impact on the country and the world. The war arose from political and ideological divisions, with North Vietnam led by the communist regime and South Vietnam supported by the United States and its allies.

The war resulted in immense loss of life and destruction, with Vietnamese civilians and soldiers on both sides caught in the crossfire. The conflict ended with the fall of Saigon in 1975 and the reunification of Vietnam under communist rule.

However, the aftermath of the war brought significant challenges to Vietnam, including economic struggles and post-war rehabilitation. Over time, Vietnam has emerged as a resilient nation, striving for development and reconciliation both domestically and internationally.

Key Points Vietnam under Chinese Rule The Vietnam War
Duration Centuries (Until 939 CE) 1954-1975
Significance Shaped Vietnam’s culture and administrative systems Protracted conflict between North and South Vietnam
Influence on Vietnam Introduction of “Three Teachings” and Chinese societal structures Loss of life, destruction, and post-war challenges

Political Structure and Leadership of Vietnam

Vietnam has a unique political structure with the Communist Party of Vietnam at its core. The party holds power and shapes policies in the country. Let’s take a closer look at the key components of the political structure and the leadership of Vietnam.

Communist Party of Vietnam

The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the ruling political party in Vietnam. It was established on February 3, 1930, and has been in power since the country’s reunification in 1976. The CPV has a central role in the political and social affairs of Vietnam and is responsible for governing the country. It operates based on the principle of democratic centralism, where decisions made by the higher levels are binding on the lower levels.

The CPV is structured hierarchically, with the Central Committee as the highest decision-making body. The committee elects the Politburo, which consists of the country’s top leaders. The General Secretary of the Communist Party is the highest-ranking official and holds significant influence over Vietnam’s political direction. The Central Committee also elects the Secretariat and the Central Inspection Committee, responsible for party discipline and corruption prevention.

President of Vietnam

The President of Vietnam is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The position is elected by the National Assembly, which is Vietnam’s legislative body. The president represents the country domestically and internationally and has ceremonial duties as the symbol of the state.

Prime Minister

The Prime Minister of Vietnam is appointed by the National Assembly and is responsible for running the government. The prime minister oversees the implementation of policies and manages the day-to-day affairs of the country. They work closely with the president and other government officials to ensure the smooth operation of the Vietnamese government.

Political Structure Diagram

Below is a simplified representation of Vietnam’s political structure:

Communist Party of Vietnam
Central Committee
  • General Secretary
  • Members
Central Inspection Committee

The diagram provides a visual representation of the political structure of Vietnam, with the Communist Party at the top. The Central Committee, Politburo, General Secretary, Secretariat, and Central Inspection Committee form the key decision-making bodies within the CPV, while the President and the Prime Minister manage the country’s governance.

“Vietnam’s political structure places the Communist Party at the center, ensuring a unified approach to governance and decision-making. However, it’s important to recognize that the country is also striving for economic growth and has implemented market-oriented reforms in recent decades. Balancing political stability with economic development remains a key challenge for Vietnam’s leadership.”

Vietnamese Cuisine and Fruits

Vietnamese cuisine is a delightful fusion of Chinese and Thai culinary styles, and it is renowned for its rich flavors and fresh ingredients. Seafood plays a significant role in Vietnamese dishes, thanks to the country’s extensive coastline. Vietnamese food is also characterized by its emphasis on fragrant herbs, spices, and homegrown fruits and vegetables.

One of the most famous Vietnamese dishes is pho, a hearty and aromatic noodle soup typically made with beef or chicken. It is often garnished with fresh herbs, bean sprouts, and lime for a burst of freshness. Another popular Vietnamese delicacy is banh mi, a Vietnamese sandwich filled with various ingredients such as grilled meats, pickled vegetables, and flavorful sauces.

“Vietnamese cuisine is a captivating blend of flavors, balancing the delicate and the bold. Each dish tells a story of tradition, culture, and the abundant natural resources of the country.”

When it comes to fruits, Vietnam is a tropical paradise. The country’s fertile soil and favorable climate create the perfect conditions for a variety of tropical fruits to thrive. Some of the most loved Vietnamese fruits include:

  • Durians: Known as the “king of fruits” in Vietnam, durians have a unique and pungent aroma. The creamy and custard-like flesh is enjoyed by locals and adventurous travelers alike.
  • Pineapples: Vietnam produces sweet and fragrant pineapples that are a delight to the taste buds. The juicy flesh is perfect for enjoying fresh or incorporating into savory dishes.
  • Jackfruits: With their distinctive spiky exterior, jackfruits are not only a delight to the eyes but also to the palate. The sweet and fibrous flesh is often used in both sweet and savory recipes.
  • Dragon Fruits: Known for their vibrant colors and refreshing taste, dragon fruits are packed with antioxidants and make a beautiful addition to fruit salads and smoothies.

If you ever visit Vietnam, make sure to indulge in the culinary delights and explore the local fruits. Vietnamese cuisine will take you on a gastronomic adventure, while the tropical fruits will tantalize your taste buds with their exotic flavors.

Natural and Man-Made Wonders of Vietnam

Vietnam is a country that boasts a wealth of natural and man-made wonders. From breathtaking caves to aromatic coffee plantations and majestic rivers, Vietnam offers a diverse range of captivating attractions that will leave travelers in awe.

One of the most remarkable natural wonders in Vietnam is the Son Doong Cave, which is located in the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. Considered the world’s largest cave, Son Doong Cave is a mesmerizing underground paradise adorned with mesmerizing stalagmites and stalactites. Exploring this natural masterpiece is like stepping into another world, filled with awe-inspiring beauty.

In addition to its natural wonders, Vietnam is also renowned for its rich coffee culture. The country is the second-largest coffee exporter in the world, and Vietnamese coffee is beloved for its unique flavor and strong aroma. A visit to a coffee plantation in Vietnam is a must for any coffee enthusiast, offering a chance to learn about the intricate process of cultivating and producing this beloved beverage. Whether you enjoy it hot or iced, Vietnamese coffee is a true treat for the senses.

Vietnam is also blessed with a network of rivers that meander through its lush landscapes. The iconic Mekong River is one of the most prominent rivers in Vietnam, playing a vital role in the country’s agriculture and transportation. This mighty river sustains numerous communities along its banks, with floating markets and traditional villages where life revolves around the rhythms of the water. The Red River is another notable river in Vietnam, flowing through the northern part of the country and nurturing fertile lands that have been the cradle of Vietnamese civilization for thousands of years. These rivers not only provide essential resources but also offer a picturesque backdrop for scenic boat rides and unforgettable adventures.

Whether you find yourself marveling at the grandeur of Son Doong Cave, sipping on a cup of aromatic Vietnamese coffee, or cruising along the tranquil rivers of Vietnam, the natural and man-made wonders of this beautiful country are bound to leave a lasting impression.

Vietnamese Traditions and Customs

Vietnamese culture is known for its rich tapestry of traditions and customs that have been passed down through generations. These customs reflect the values and beliefs of the Vietnamese people, creating a unique cultural identity.

Vietnamese Names

One fascinating aspect of Vietnamese culture is the significance of names. In Vietnam, the most common surname is Nguyen, which holds historical importance from the Nguyen Dynasty. The given names often have deep meanings and are carefully chosen to express the parents’ hopes or reflect the desired virtues for their child.

For example, the name “Hoa” means “flower” and is associated with beauty and grace. Similarly, the name “An” signifies peace and tranquility. Vietnamese names are often poetic and are regarded as an expression of the family’s aspirations for their children.

Personal Inquiries in Vietnam

When engaging in conversations with Vietnamese individuals, it is common to inquire about age and marital status. Unlike Western cultural norms, asking about these personal details in Vietnamese society is seen as a way of showing interest and establishing connections.

Inquiring about age is considered a sign of respect, as it allows people to address each other appropriately using the appropriate pronouns. Inquiring about marital status is also a common topic of discussion, as it helps to understand an individual’s social status and family background.

Understanding and respecting these cultural practices is essential when visiting Vietnam. By demonstrating interest in learning about Vietnamese traditions and customs, you can deepen your connections and build meaningful relationships with the local people.

Religion in Vietnam

In Vietnam, religion holds a significant place in shaping the country’s culture and societal values. Despite being a communist country with no official religion, the government recognizes and respects the freedom of worship. Many Vietnamese people follow the “Three Teachings” of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism, which have deep roots in Vietnamese society.

This religious diversity can be seen through the numerous temples and pagodas that are scattered throughout the country. These sacred sites serve as places of spiritual practice, where devotees can seek solace, find guidance, and connect with higher powers. The architecture and intricate designs of these religious structures reflect both historical influences and the unique Vietnamese style.

Religion not only plays a role in personal faith but also extends its influence to various social aspects. It provides a moral framework and fosters a sense of community and solidarity among believers. Religious festivals and rituals are celebrated with great enthusiasm and are an integral part of Vietnamese culture.

Furthermore, the teachings and values imparted by religious beliefs contribute to the ethical foundation of Vietnamese society. Concepts such as compassion, harmony, filial piety, and respect for elders are rooted in religious teachings and are upheld as essential virtues in Vietnamese culture.

“Religion is the foundation that strengthens the moral fabric of Vietnamese society, promoting unity, empathy, and a sense of purpose.”

Religious Freedom and Harmony

The Vietnamese constitution guarantees freedom of religion, allowing individuals to practice their faith without interference. This freedom extends to both believers and non-believers, fostering religious harmony and respect for diverse beliefs. The government has actively promoted interfaith dialogue and cooperation, encouraging mutual understanding and peaceful coexistence among different religious communities.

While the majority of Vietnamese follow the “Three Teachings,” there are also smaller communities of Christians, Muslims, and followers of indigenous religions. These religious groups contribute to the religious tapestry of Vietnam, further enriching its cultural landscape.

The preservation and protection of religious heritage sites are of paramount importance to the government. Temples, pagodas, and other sacred locations are recognized as valuable cultural assets and are actively conserved and maintained. This ensures that future generations can continue to experience and appreciate the religious traditions and practices that have shaped Vietnam’s identity.


Vietnam is a captivating country that offers a unique blend of natural beauty, rich culture, and a fascinating history. From the picturesque landscapes of Ha Long Bay and the Annam Cordillera mountain range to the vibrant cities and bustling markets, Vietnam has something to offer for every traveler.

The country’s cuisine is renowned worldwide, with its flavorful dishes like pho and banh mi tantalizing the taste buds. Additionally, Vietnam’s diverse array of tropical fruits adds a delightful touch to its culinary delights.

As visitors explore Vietnam, they will also encounter the warm and hospitable nature of the Vietnamese people, who take pride in their traditions and customs. Whether it’s a friendly conversation or an invitation to partake in a local celebration, the Vietnamese people make visitors feel welcome and connected.

By delving into the facts about Vietnam, travelers can gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for this enchanting destination. From its ancient historical sites to its breathtaking natural wonders, Vietnam truly offers a remarkable experience that will leave a lasting impression.


What is the official name of Vietnam?

Vietnam is officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Where is Vietnam located?

Vietnam is located in Southeast Asia, bordered by China to the north and Laos and Cambodia to the west.

How many people live in Vietnam?

Vietnam has a population of over 97 million people.

What is the official language of Vietnam?

The official language of Vietnam is Vietnamese.

What currency is used in Vietnam?

The currency used in Vietnam is the Dong.

What are some geographical features of Vietnam?

Vietnam has diverse geographical features, including the Annam Cordillera mountain range and major rivers like the Mekong, Red, Ma, and Perfume.

What are some famous landmarks in Vietnam?

Some famous landmarks in Vietnam include Ha Long Bay, the Annam Cordillera mountain range, and the Mekong Delta.

What is Vietnamese culture like?

Vietnamese culture is a unique blend of indigenous traditions and external influences. Many Vietnamese people follow the “Three Teachings” of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

Is Vietnam rich in wildlife?

Yes, Vietnam is rich in wildlife, with a wide variety of mammal, reptile, amphibian, and bird species. The country has set up parks and reserves to protect its animals.

How is Vietnam governed?

Vietnam is a socialist republic governed by the Communist Party of Vietnam. It has a president as the head of state and a prime minister who runs the government.

What are the major industries in Vietnam?

Vietnam’s major industries include crude oil, seafood, rice, shoes, wooden products, machinery, electronics, coffee, and clothing.

What is the historical background of Vietnam?

Vietnam has a long history of interacting with China and has been influenced by Chinese rule for centuries. It also experienced French colonization and was divided during the Vietnam War.

How is the political structure of Vietnam?

The political structure of Vietnam is characterized by the dominance of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The country has a president who is the head of state and a prime minister who runs the government.

What is Vietnamese cuisine known for?

Vietnamese cuisine is known for its blend of Chinese and Thai styles, with an emphasis on seafood and homegrown fruits and vegetables. Popular dishes include pho and banh mi.

What are some natural and man-made wonders in Vietnam?

Some natural and man-made wonders in Vietnam include Son Doong Cave, which is the world’s largest cave, and Vietnam’s coffee, which is a major export.

What are some Vietnamese traditions and customs?

Vietnamese traditions and customs include the common surname Nguyen, inquiries about age and marital status as a way of showing interest and establishing connections, and respect for temples and pagodas.

Does Vietnam have an official religion?

Vietnam is a communist country with no official religion, but people are free to worship if they choose. Many Vietnamese follow the “Three Teachings” of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

What can visitors experience in Vietnam?

Visitors to Vietnam can experience stunning landscapes, rich culture, unique cuisine, and a complex history.

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