Types of Muslims

Types of Muslims (Forms of Islam)

The worldwide survey conducted by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life sheds light on the remarkable diversity within the Muslim community. Muslims vary significantly in their levels of religious commitment, interpretations of their faith, and acceptance of different sects and movements. Understanding the different types of Muslims is crucial for gaining a comprehensive view of Islam as a whole.

Key Takeaways:

  • Islam is a diverse religion, with various sects and movements within its global community.
  • The two major denominations in Islam are Sunni and Shia.
  • Sunni Muslims constitute the majority, following the teachings of four main schools of law.
  • Shia Muslims believe in the hereditary imamate and have different sects within their community.
  • Sufi Muslims emphasize the mystical dimensions of Islam.

Sunni Muslims: The Largest Denomination within Islam

Sunni Muslims constitute the largest denomination within Islam, accounting for approximately 85% of the global Muslim population. The term “Sunni” derives from the Arabic word “Sunna,” which refers to the traditions and practices of the Prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims believe in the importance of following the sunna of the Prophet and the first four caliphs as the rightful successors to the Prophet.

Sunni Islam encompasses four main schools of jurisprudence: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali. These schools provide a framework for legal and ethical interpretations and guide religious practices and social norms within Sunni communities. Each school has its own methodologies and principles, contributing to the diversity and richness of Sunni law.

“Sunni Islam is a vibrant and diverse religious tradition, encompassing various schools of thought and interpretations. It emphasizes the importance of community and consensus, while also allowing for personal interpretations within the framework of the sunna and the established schools of law.”

The Importance of Sunnīsm

Sunnīsm, referring to the adherence to Sunni Islam, has a wide geographic spread. Sunnis are the majority in more than 40 countries around the world, including prominent Muslim-majority nations such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Indonesia. This widespread influence has shaped the cultural, political, and social fabric of these societies.

The teachings and practices of Sunni Islam have left a lasting impact on Islamic history and civilization. From the establishment of the first caliphate to the preservation and interpretation of religious texts, Sunni scholars have played a pivotal role in shaping the development and evolution of Islamic thought and theology. The diversity within Sunni Islam, both in terms of schools of law and cultural expressions, showcases the dynamic nature of the faith and its ability to adapt to different contexts and societies.

Sunni Schools of Law Founders Geographic Influence
Hanafi Abu Hanifa Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia
Maliki Malik ibn Anas North Africa, West Africa
Shafi’i Al-Shafi’i Southeast Asia, East Africa
Hanbali Ahmad ibn Hanbal Saudi Arabia, Gulf States

The diversity within Sunni Islam reflects the various historical, cultural, and geographical contexts in which it has thrived. It is this diversity that has contributed to the vibrancy and resilience of Sunni communities, allowing for a range of interpretations and expressions of faith while maintaining a shared commitment to the core principles and teachings of Islam.

Shia Muslims: A Diverse Sect within Islam

Shia Islam, also known as Shiism, encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices within the Muslim community. Representing approximately 15% of the global Muslim population, Shia Muslims hold distinctive theological views and follow the teachings of the Jaʽfari jurisprudence. The Shia sect emerged from a historical dispute over the succession of the Prophet Muhammad and places particular emphasis on the leadership of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet. The Shia community is further divided into various major sects, including Twelvers, Ismailis, and Zaydis.

One notable aspect of Shia Islam is the veneration of Imams, who are considered to be divinely appointed spiritual leaders. Twelver Shia Muslims believe in the existence of twelve infallible Imams, with the twelfth Imam being in a state of occultation and expected to return as the Mahdi, a messianic figure. Ismailis, on the other hand, recognize a line of Imams that evolved after the seventh Imam, Ismail. Zaydis, found primarily in Yemen, follow a different line of Imams and have distinct theological and legal perspectives.

The Jaʽfari Jurisprudence and the Shia School of Thought

The Jaʽfari jurisprudence is the main legal school followed by Shia Muslims, providing guidance on matters of religious practice and ethical conduct. It is based on the teachings of Imam Jaʽfar al-Sadiq, the sixth Imam revered by both Twelver Shia and Ismaili communities. The Jaʽfari school of thought focuses on intellectual discourse and scholarly research, emphasizing the use of reason in interpreting religious texts.

While Shia Muslims are a minority compared to Sunni Muslims, they hold significant political and religious influence in certain regions. Iran, for example, has a Shia majority population and operates under a Shia Islamic republic system. In countries like Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan, Shia Muslims also form a significant portion of the population. It is important to note that the diversity within the Muslim community, including the Shia sect, contributes to the rich tapestry of Islamic traditions and beliefs.

Shia Sect Main Beliefs Majority Geographical Presence
Twelvers Believe in twelve infallible Imams, with the twelfth Imam in occultation. Iran, Iraq, Lebanon
Ismailis Recognize a line of Imams evolved after the seventh Imam, Ismail. India, Pakistan, East Africa
Zaydis Follow a distinct line of Imams and have distinct theological and legal perspectives. Yemen

Understanding the diversity within Islam, including the beliefs and practices of Shia Muslims, is crucial for fostering interfaith dialogue, mutual respect, and global cooperation. The Shia sect adds to the richness and complexity of Islamic thought and offers unique perspectives on spirituality, law, and social issues.

Sufi Muslims: Exploring the Mystical Dimensions of Islam

Sufi Muslims are a vibrant and diverse community within Islam that focuses on the mystical dimensions of the faith. Sufism, also known as Islamic mysticism, offers a unique approach to spiritual enlightenment by emphasizing the direct experience of the divine. Sufis engage in various practices to deepen their connection with God, such as meditation, chanting, and dancing. These practices help them achieve a state of ecstasy and union with the divine.

Sufism transcends sectarian boundaries and can be found among both Sunni and Shia Muslims. It is a personal and introspective journey that allows individuals to explore the inner dimensions of their faith. Sufis believe that the path to God is not solely through religious rituals and adherence to laws, but through a deepened understanding of the heart and the development of spiritual virtues such as love, compassion, and humility.

As Sufism emphasizes the universality of divine love, it promotes tolerance, acceptance, and unity among all people, regardless of their religious or cultural backgrounds. Sufis often engage in spiritual practices collectively, forming communities where they can support and learn from one another. These communities, known as Sufi orders or tariqas, have their own unique traditions, rituals, and teachings that guide their spiritual journey.

Sufism is the wine of the mystics and the nectar of the lovers of God. It is a path of love, devotion, and surrender to the divine presence within and beyond ourselves. Through Sufism, Muslims seek to transcend the ego and merge with the Beloved, experiencing the bliss of divine union. It is a path of beauty, poetry, and music, where the heart is the guide and love is the bridge that connects us to the divine reality.

Sufi Muslims play a significant role in the cultural and spiritual life of many Muslim-majority countries. Their teachings and practices have inspired poets, musicians, and artists throughout history, leaving a profound impact on Islamic art, literature, and philosophy. By delving into the mystical dimensions of Islam, Sufi Muslims offer a unique perspective that enriches the broader understanding of the Islamic faith.

Sufi Practices Sufi Orders
Whirling Dervishes Qadiriyya
Chanting and Music Naqshbandi
Meditation and Contemplation Mevlevi
Recitation of Sacred Texts Chishti

Ahmadiyya Muslims: A Unique Sect within Islam

Ahmadiyya Muslims belong to the Ahmadiyya sect, a distinct and relatively recent addition to the diverse landscape of Islamic belief systems. Founded in the late 19th century by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India, the Ahmadiyya community holds unique beliefs that set them apart from mainstream Muslims. Central to their doctrine is the belief that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the Promised Messiah and Mahdi prophesied in Islamic scriptures.

This distinctive belief has led to the persecution of Ahmadiyya Muslims in some countries, with their status as Muslims being questioned by orthodox Muslim communities. Despite this, Ahmadiyya Muslims strive to promote peace, education, and service to humanity, aligning with the core values of Islam.

“We believe in the fundamental teachings of the Holy Quran and the Prophet Muhammad, serving as a bridge between Islam and the wider world,” says Ahmad Khan, an Ahmadiyya Muslim scholar. “Our community places great emphasis on promoting interfaith dialogue and understanding, working towards a world where all people can coexist in harmony.”

Ahmadiyya Sect: Key Beliefs and Practices

The Ahmadiyya sect places a strong emphasis on the Quran as the ultimate source of authority in Islam, alongside the teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. They believe in the continuation of prophethood, with Mirza Ghulam Ahmad being seen as a subordinate prophet to Prophet Muhammad. Ahmadis also reject violent jihad and advocate for a peaceful propagation of Islam through dialogue and peaceful means.

Another notable aspect of Ahmadiyya belief is the concept of Khilafat, which refers to the spiritual leadership of the community. After the death of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the institution of Khilafat was established, with successive Caliphs leading the community. The present Caliph, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, serves as a guiding figure for Ahmadiyya Muslims worldwide.

Key Beliefs and Practices of Ahmadiyya Muslims
Belief in the Promised Messiah and Mahdi Ahmadis believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the awaited Messiah and Mahdi prophesied in Islamic scriptures.
Emphasis on Peaceful Propagation of Islam Ahmadis reject violent jihad and advocate for the peaceful spread of Islam through dialogue and education.
Importance of Khilafat Ahmadis believe in the institution of Khilafat, with the Caliph serving as the spiritual leader of the community.
Focus on Interfaith Dialogue The Ahmadiyya community actively promotes interfaith understanding and cooperation, seeking to build bridges between different religious communities.

Ahmadiyya Muslims continue to face challenges and discrimination, but their commitment to peace, service, and the core tenets of Islam remains unwavering. As they navigate the complexities of their unique position within the Islamic world, Ahmadiyya Muslims strive to contribute positively to society and foster mutual respect and understanding among all people.

Ismaili Muslims: A Unique Sect within Shia Islam

The Ismaili Muslims are a distinct branch of Shia Islam, following the teachings of Imam Ismail, the seventh imam in Shia Islam. Their belief system centers around the concept of ongoing hereditary imamate, wherein the current Imam is considered the spiritual and temporal leader of the community. Currently, the Ismaili community is led by Prince Karim Aga Khan IV, who is regarded as the present Imam.

Within the Ismaili sect, there are different subgroups and traditions, each with its own unique cultural and theological practices. Ismailis emphasize the importance of education, pluralism, and community development. They are known for their philanthropic efforts and their focus on uplifting marginalized communities through educational initiatives, healthcare services, and socioeconomic development projects.

Unlike other sects within Islam, Ismailis have a strong global presence, with communities spread across various countries. They have made significant contributions to the fields of art, architecture, literature, and philosophy throughout history, leaving a lasting impact on the cultural and intellectual heritage of the Islamic world.

The Aga Khan Development Network

One of the remarkable aspects of the Ismaili community is the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN). The AKDN is a prominent international organization that operates in over 30 countries, working towards social, economic, and cultural development. It encompasses a wide range of agencies and institutions that collaborate to uplift underserved communities and address global challenges such as poverty, climate change, and healthcare access.

“Our faith motivates us to search for knowledge, to understand and improve the human condition, and to offer compassion and assistance wherever needed.” – His Highness the Aga Khan

Through its initiatives, the AKDN aims to promote pluralism, bridge cultural divides, and foster sustainable development. It exemplifies the Ismaili community’s commitment to improving the quality of life for all individuals, regardless of their background or beliefs.

Key Beliefs Practices Cultural Contributions
  • Belief in the ongoing hereditary imamate
  • Emphasis on social justice and inclusion
  • Commitment to knowledge and education
  • Participation in communal prayers and rituals
  • Observance of ethical principles in daily life
  • Engagement in philanthropic activities
  • Contributions to art, literature, and architecture
  • Promotion of cultural preservation and heritage
  • Support for intellectual discourse and dialogue

The Ismaili community’s rich history, deep-rooted values, and commitment to humanitarian action make them a unique and integral part of the global Muslim community.

Ibadi Muslims: A Moderated Approach to Islam

The Ibadi sect, a distinct branch of Islam, emphasizes a moderate and inclusive approach to religious and political matters. With a rich history dating back to the early Islamic period, Ibadi Muslims prioritize consensus and consultation within their community, fostering a sense of unity and cooperation.

Ibadi Muslims are primarily found in Oman and have a significant presence in parts of North Africa. Their beliefs and practices align closely with the teachings of the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad, while also incorporating local customs and traditions. This unique blend of religious principles and cultural influences shapes the identity of Ibadi Muslims and sets them apart from other Muslim sects.

Table: A Comparison of Ibadi, Sunni, and Shia Islam

Aspect Ibadi Islam Sunni Islam Shia Islam
Leadership Consensus-based Primarily follows caliphs Believes in the Imamate
Main Regions Oman, North Africa Middle East, South Asia Iran, Iraq, Bahrain
Beliefs Moderate, inclusive Follows the traditions of Prophet Muhammad Emphasizes the leadership of Ali and his descendants

As Ibadi Muslims prioritize consensus, their approach to religious and political decision-making involves open dialogue and inclusive participation. This fosters a sense of unity and harmony within the Ibadi community, allowing for a diversity of opinions and perspectives to be heard and considered.

Ibadi Muslims value knowledge, education, and social justice, emphasizing the importance of fairness and equality in their interactions with others. They strive to maintain a balanced and tolerant approach to Islam, recognizing the diversity within the Muslim community and promoting peaceful coexistence.

Inclusive Practices: The Ibadi Approach to Worship

The Ibadi sect places a strong emphasis on community engagement and participation, promoting inclusivity within their worship practices. Ibadi mosques are known for their open-door policy, welcoming Muslims from different backgrounds and sects to join in prayer and spiritual gatherings. This commitment to inclusivity reflects the Ibadi belief in the unity of the Muslim ummah (community) and the importance of fostering strong bonds among believers.

  • The Ibadi community encourages active involvement in charitable activities and community service, considering it an essential part of their faith.
  • They value social cohesion and solidarity, striving to build strong relationships and support networks within their local communities.
  • Ibadi Muslims also prioritize the pursuit of knowledge and intellectual development, recognizing the transformative power of education in personal and societal growth.

Table: Key Practices of Ibadi Muslims

Practice Significance
Community Service Emphasizes the importance of selflessness and helping those in need.
Social Cohesion Strengthens bonds within the community, fostering unity and solidarity.
Education Encourages intellectual development and lifelong learning.

By embracing these inclusive practices and values, Ibadi Muslims strive to create a harmonious and just society that reflects the principles of Islam.

Quranic Muslims: Emphasizing the Quran as the Sole Source of Authority in Islam

Quranic Muslims, also known as Quranists or Quran-centric Muslims, prioritize the Quran as the sole source of authority in Islam. They reject the authority of hadith literature and traditions attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, believing that the Quran itself is sufficient for guidance. This approach stems from their belief that the Quran is the direct word of God and should be understood and followed without the need for additional religious interpretations or practices.

By focusing solely on the Quran, Quranic Muslims emphasize the importance of personal interpretation and understanding of the sacred text. This allows for a more individualized approach to Islamic faith and practice, enabling Quranic Muslims to draw their own conclusions and make informed decisions based on their understanding of the Quran’s teachings and principles.

Quranic Muslims advocate for a return to the original message of Islam as outlined in the Quran, free from the interpretations and cultural influences that have developed over time. They strive to align their lives with the values and principles found in the Quran, such as justice, compassion, and equality. This emphasis on the Quran as the primary source of religious authority sets Quranic Muslims apart from other sects and movements within Islam.

“Our focus is on the Quran, as it is the direct word of God. We believe that by studying and understanding the Quran, we can find all the guidance we need to lead a righteous and fulfilling life. We do not rely on hadith or other sources, as we believe they can be subject to human error and interpretation.” – Quranic Muslim

Challenges and Controversies

The Quranic approach to Islam has faced criticism and challenges from various quarters within the Muslim community. Some argue that without the context of hadith and the interpretations offered by scholars, a complete understanding of Islamic teachings is not possible. Others believe that the exclusion of hadith and the emphasis on personal interpretation can lead to individualized and subjective understandings of Islam that may deviate from the traditional teachings of the faith.

Additionally, the rejection of hadith and reliance solely on the Quran has sparked debates and controversies within the Muslim community. Some Quranic Muslims face criticism or even ostracization from mainstream sects and movements due to their differing beliefs and practices. However, Quranic Muslims continue to assert their commitment to the Quran as the ultimate source of guidance and strive to find common ground with other Muslims while maintaining their unique approach to the faith.

Key Features of Quranic Muslims Mainstream Sunni/Shia Muslims
Emphasize the Quran as the sole source of authority in Islam Rely on the Quran, hadith, and scholarly interpretations
Reject the authority of hadith literature attributed to the Prophet Muhammad Consider hadith literature an important source of religious guidance
Believe in personal interpretation of the Quran Place importance on interpretations offered by scholars
Advocate for a return to the original message of Islam as outlined in the Quran Follow established schools of thought and traditions within Sunni/Shia Islam

Traditional Muslims: Embracing Mainstream Islam

Traditional Muslims, also known as mainstream Muslims, form a significant segment of the global Muslim community. They adhere to the teachings of the Quran, the Sunnah (traditions) of the Prophet Muhammad, and the consensus of the Muslim community (ijma). Traditional Muslims follow the established schools of law and theology within Sunni and Shia Islam and participate in the religious rituals and practices that are widely recognized by the Muslim community at large.

One of the key characteristics of traditional Muslims is their commitment to the core principles and fundamental beliefs of Islam. They view the Quran as the sacred word of God and seek guidance from the Prophet Muhammad’s life and teachings. Traditional Muslims place great importance on the five pillars of Islam, which include the profession of faith, prayer, fasting, giving to charity, and pilgrimage to Mecca.

It is worth noting that traditional Muslims encompass a broad spectrum of cultural practices and expressions. While they adhere to the fundamental tenets of Islam, there may be variations in certain customs and traditions based on geographical location and cultural influences. These differences contribute to the rich diversity within the Muslim community, adding a vibrant tapestry of cultural heritage to the practice of mainstream Islam.

The Role of Traditional Islam in Muslim Societies

Traditional Islam plays a central role in the social, political, and moral fabric of many Muslim-majority societies. It provides a framework for personal and communal ethics, governance, and social solidarity. Institutions such as mosques, madrasas, and religious scholars serve as important pillars of support and guidance for traditional Muslims.

Key Characteristics of Traditional Muslims Mainstream Islamic Beliefs and Practices
Adherence to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah Emphasis on the importance of the five pillars of Islam
Participation in communal worship and religious rituals Respect for the authority of religious scholars
Engagement in acts of charity and community service Commitment to social justice and moral values

Traditional Muslims form the bedrock of Islamic societies, upholding the core values and practices that have been passed down through generations. They contribute to the rich tapestry of Islamic traditions and serve as a bridge between the past and the present, ensuring the preservation and continuity of mainstream Islam.

In summary, traditional Muslims, as followers of mainstream Islam, play a vital role in the global Muslim community. They adhere to the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad while participating in the established religious rituals and practices of Islam. Traditional Islam serves as the foundation of Muslim societies, providing moral guidance, communal support, and a sense of belonging. Recognizing the diverse expressions of traditional Islam contributes to fostering greater understanding and respect within the Muslim community and beyond.

Liberal Muslims

Liberal Muslims are a progressive force within Islam, advocating for a more inclusive and contemporary interpretation of the faith. They seek to reconcile Islamic teachings with modern values, emphasizing principles such as justice, equality, and compassion. Liberal Muslims prioritize individual freedom and human rights, challenging traditional interpretations that they perceive as oppressive or discriminatory. Their aim is to bring about social and political reforms within Muslim-majority societies while remaining firmly rooted in their Islamic faith.

“We believe that Islam is a religion of peace, tolerance, and coexistence,” says Amina, a liberal Muslim activist. “We strive to promote a compassionate and inclusive Islam that embraces diversity and respects the rights of all individuals, regardless of their gender, sexual orientation, or religious beliefs.”

Liberal Muslims advocate for critical thinking and independent interpretation of religious texts, encouraging Muslims to engage in a thoughtful and contextually informed understanding of their faith. They reject the idea that religious doctrine should be static and unchanging, instead embracing the notion that Islam can evolve and adapt to the present-day reality.

Challenges and Criticisms

Liberal Muslims face challenges and criticisms from more conservative elements within the Muslim community, who view their progressive views as a departure from established traditions. Some accuse them of diluting the essence of Islam or being influenced by Western values. However, liberal Muslims argue that their approach is necessary to address the needs and concerns of a rapidly changing world.

In conclusion, liberal Muslims play a vital role in shaping a contemporary Islamic discourse that is relevant, inclusive, and compatible with the principles of human rights and social justice. By embracing progressive interpretations of Islam, they strive to create a more equitable and harmonious society within the Muslim world and beyond.


The diverse types of Muslims across the globe reflect the rich tapestry of Islamic beliefs, practices, and cultural expressions. Understanding the different sects and movements within Islam is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of the religion. Sunni Muslims make up the largest denomination, while Shia Muslims and Sufi Muslims offer unique perspectives and spiritual practices. Ahmadiyya Muslims, Ismaili Muslims, Ibadi Muslims, Quranic Muslims, and traditional Muslims each contribute their own distinct interpretations and approaches to Islam.

Despite differences and tensions, it is important to approach the topic of Islam with respect and understanding. Recognizing and respecting the diversity within the Muslim community can help foster greater interfaith understanding and promote peaceful coexistence. Muslims and non-Muslims alike can benefit from acknowledging the nuances and complexities of Islamic beliefs and practices. Embracing this diversity can lead to fruitful dialogue, cooperation, and mutual respect between individuals of different faiths.

In conclusion, this article has provided an overview of the various types of Muslims, including Sunni Muslims, Shia Muslims, Sufi Muslims, Ahmadiyya Muslims, Ismaili Muslims, Ibadi Muslims, Quranic Muslims, traditional Muslims, and liberal Muslims. Each of these groups contributes to the rich mosaic of Muslim beliefs and practices. By embracing the diversity within the Muslim community and engaging in respectful dialogue, we can build bridges of understanding and work towards a more inclusive and harmonious society.


What are the different types of Muslims?

The different types of Muslims include Sunni Muslims, Shia Muslims, Sufi Muslims, Ahmadiyya Muslims, Ismaili Muslims, Ibadi Muslims, Quranic Muslims, Traditional Muslims, and Liberal Muslims.

What is the largest denomination within Islam?

The largest denomination within Islam is Sunni Islam, comprising approximately 85% of the Muslim population worldwide.

What are the major sects within Shia Islam?

The major sects within Shia Islam include Twelvers, Ismailis, and Zaydis.

What is Sufism?

Sufism is a spiritual and ascetic tradition within Islam that focuses on developing a personal relationship with God and seeking spiritual enlightenment.

Who are the Ahmadiyya Muslims?

Ahmadiyya Muslims are followers of the Ahmadiyya sect, which was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in the late 19th century in India. They believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the Promised Messiah and Mahdi prophesied in Islamic scriptures.

What is the Ismaili sect?

The Ismaili sect is a branch of Shia Islam that follows the teachings of Imam Ismail. They believe in the concept of ongoing hereditary imamate, with the current Imam being Prince Karim Aga Khan IV.

Who are the Ibadi Muslims?

Ibadi Muslims are followers of the Ibadi sect, which originated in the early Islamic period. They are known for their moderate and inclusive approach to religious and political matters.

What are Quranic Muslims?

Quranic Muslims, also known as Quranists or Quran-centric Muslims, prioritize the Quran as the sole source of authority in Islam and reject the authority of hadith literature and traditions.

What do Traditional Muslims believe?

Traditional Muslims adhere to the teachings of the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad, and the consensus of the Muslim community. They follow the established schools of law and theology within Sunni and Shia Islam.

What do Liberal Muslims advocate for?

Liberal Muslims advocate for a more progressive and inclusive interpretation of Islam, emphasizing universal values such as justice, equality, and compassion. They challenge traditional interpretations they perceive as oppressive or discriminatory and advocate for social and political reforms.

Why is understanding the diversity within the Muslim community important?

Understanding the diversity within the Muslim community is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of Islam and fosters greater interfaith understanding and peaceful coexistence among Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

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